Wastay Hazrat Murad e naik naam     Ishq apna day mujhe Rab al-Inaam     Apni ulfat se aata kar soaz o saaz     Apne arfaan ke sikha raaz o niaz      Fazal e Rehman fazl tera har ghari darkaar hai     Fazal e Rehman fazl tera ho to bera paar hai



Hazrat Muhammad Murad Ali Khan Rahmatullah Alayh


Hazrat Shaik Abdul Quddus Gangohi

Rahmatullah Alayh


The author of Nuzah [or Nuzhah] depicts his ancestral tree as follows:Shah Abdul Quddْs the son of Ismail, the son of Safi, the son of Nasirul Hanafi Radoli Gangohi. Some say that his name was Ismail while his title was Shah Abdul Quddْs. He is, however, known by only his title. He was apparently born in 860 Hijri. He excelled in both, Uloom-e-Zaahiriyyah and Baatiniyyah. His obedience to the Sunnat was of the loftiest standard.















Although he is among the Khulafaa of Hadhrat Shaikh Arif, the perfection of his spiritual excellences was by the direct Faidh-e-Roohaani (spiritual emanation or spiritual attention) of Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Haq. Hadhrat thus writes in his book, Anwarul Uyoon:

“Among the tassarrufaat (spiritual actions) of Hadhrat Ahmad Abdul Haq is that 50 years after his demise he attended to the tarbiyat (spiritual training) of this insignificant entity (i.e. Shaikh Abdul Quddْs) by means of his Roohaani Faidh.”

Hadhrat Abdul Quddْs Gangohi’s son writes:

“It was my father’s intention to become bay’t somewhere else. However, Hadhrat Shaikh Ahmad Abdul Haq instructed from Aalam-e-Kashf (the Realm of Spiritual Revelation):

‘Don’t contemplate bay’t at any other place. I shall attend to your accomplishment (takmeel).”

Since Hadhrat Shah Abdul Quddْs cherished the idea of becoming physically bay’t, Hadhrat Shaikh Ahmad Abdul Haq referred him to his grandson, Shaikh rif.Muhammad Bin Shaik

Thus, Hadhrat Shaikh was initiated into the Silsilah both by physical and spiritual bay’t, his Roohaani Shaikh being Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Haq Radoli. Beside this Shaikh of his, he had also gained the mantle of khilaafate from Shaikh Qasim Oodhi who was among the Akaabir of the Suharwardiyyah Silsilah.

He was a born wali. He was a Saahib-e-Karaamat from childhood.

In the beginning he did some farming. From the yield of the farm he would first spend on the Fuqaraa.

He had an inclination for Simaa (spiritual singing of the Auliya). The Ulama have enumerated ten conditions for the permissibility of Sima sessions. These conditions are elaborated in great detail in the explanations of the Auliya. Hadhrat Aqdas Thanvi has written a treatise, Haqqus Simaa’, in which he mentions five conditions taken from Imaam Ghazali’s Ihyaul Uloom, as well as five factors of prohibition. In the seventh section of his treatise, he writes:

“Are there any conditions for its (Simaa’s) permissibility and any prohibition’s or not? And are those conditions found in our time or not or are the prohibitions present? In Ihyaul Uloom, Imaam Ghazali states five conditions and five prohibitions. The conditions are:

1) Time, place and participants.

Hadhrat Junaid said that Simaa’ depends on three things. In their absence, never listen to it. These are zamaan (time), makaan (place) and ikhwaan (the brothers participating).

Zamaan means such a time which is free from any necessary Shar’i or other activity, e.g. Salaat, study, eating-time, etc., or any action which will distract the heart.

Makaan means that the venue of Simaa’ should not be a public place or a place where people pass nor should there be any such activity which could distract the heart.

Ikhwaan refers to the participants of the Simaa’ session. The reason for this condition is that the presence of an alien, namely, a person bereft of the spirit of the wealth of the baatin, is detestable and burdensome as he distracts the heart. Similarly, if a proud worldly person arrives, and he is treated respectfully or if a Sْfi of riya joins in and on account of riya the fake feigns wajd (ecstasy) and tears his clothes, then the spiritual pleasure of the Simaa’ vanishes.

Now consider to what extent is this condition adhered to in our times? In most cases Simaa’ is held nowadays at the times of Namaaz, leading to it’s neglect. Missing Jamaat and the approach of the expiry of the Namaaz time are even considered unimportant. Furthermore no grief is felt when Jamaat and Namaaz are missed for the sake of Simaa’. The importance attached to Simaa’ is not accorded to the Sunnats and Faraa-idh. In fact, some say that Sima is the actual and true ibaadat, even superior to Namaaz, Naْthubillah!

In most cases Simaa’ takes place at such venues where all and sundry attend. Even immoral and corrupt persons gather to see the comedy being enacted. No arrangement whatever is made for privacy.

People of affluence and worldly prominence also attend in most cases. Special treatment is accorded to them even while the Simaa’ session is in progress. People of riya also attend in abundance. In fact, the majority at such sessions consists of them. Sometimes the critics too attend, making a mockery of the people of ecstasy. Sometimes the consequence was even violence and the police had to be called. Thus, the condition does not exist even partially.

2) Now, regarding the second condition, Imaam Sahib (i.e. Imaam Ghazali) says:

‘The second condition is the state of those who are present. The Shaikh should not listen to Simaa’ in the presence of such Mureeds who will be adversely affected by Simaa’. Three kinds of persons are adversely affected by Simaa’:

First is the person who is not yet aware of Tareeqat. He knows only the external actions.

Second: A person who although having a baatini affinity with Simaa’, still has in him carnal desires and emotions. The evil power of the nafs has not yet been thoroughly broken. When such a person listens to Simaa’, carnal passion will be stirred in him. This poor fellow will therefore fail miserably and not attain spiritual perfection.

Third: A person who has vanquished his carnal emotions, has wide spiritual vision and the love of Allah is dominant in him. But, he lacks qualification and firmness in Zaahiri Uloom and is not properly aware of the masaa-il of the Divine Names and Attributes. He will not be able to understand what is lawful to attribute to Allah and what is not lawful. When such a person listens to Simaa’ he will attribute everything (he experiences) to Allah Ta’ala.

The damage which such kufr ideas will wrought, far outweighs any benefits of Simaa’. It is furthermore not lawful for a person to listen to Simaa’ when he is corrupted with the love of the world and love for fame. Simaa’ is also not permissible for a person who listens for the sake of pleasure because of the grave danger of addiction. In consequence, his important duties and ibaadat will suffer and his Path of Sulook will come to an end.

Thus, Simaa’ is an extremely slippery act fraught with grave pitfalls. It is, therefore, waajib for weaklings to refrain therefrom.

Now consider our times. The majority of participants are such people for whom Simaa’ is detrimental. Leave alone their spiritual condition. Even their zaahiri (practical) deeds are corrupt. So many of them do not perform Namaaz. They are beardless, devourers of bribes, oppressors, of loose morals, of un-Islamic appearance, young, saturated with lust, worshippers of external beauty, etc. If there happens to be present among them a pious person who is an aabid, then too, he lacks adequate zaahiri knowledge of the Shariat. Neither is he an expert of Ilm-e-Haqiqat. He does not understand correctly the subtle points of these masaa-il nor is he aware of the terminologies and subtleties of the Aarifeen to enable him to interpret the verses he hears. He is unable to reconcile between Shariat and Haqiqat. On account of ignorance he will accept any corrupt thoughts occurring to him. Whether it be a bid’at or kufr, he is not concerned as long as he derives pleasure. Thousands are involved in clear beliefs of kufr because they misunderstood poetry sung at Simaa’ sessions.

To correctly understand poetry of ambiguous meanings, two things are essential. Firstly, the knowledge of the terminologies of the Auliya, e.g. the meaning of sea, waves, manifestation, descent in different substrata, etc. Secondly, the knowledge of the applicability of the meanings of these terminologies to Allah Ta’ala. Can such meanings be ascribed to Him or not? Both these requirements are dependent on adequate knowledge.

How many participants in Simaa’ nowadays possess such taqwa, mujaahadah and knowledge? Even if these qualities are found in one or two, they are lacking in the remainder of those who indulge in Simaa’. In the presence of unworthy persons even worthy persons are not permitted to participate.

3) Regarding the third condition:

Imaam Sahib (Imaam Ghazali) says that it is total concentration. One’s full attention should be towards the Simaa’. The gaze should not wander nor should the eyes fall on the faces of the other participants. No attention should be paid to the wajd (ecstasy) of anyone. There should be stability in concentration. No act which distracts another should be committed. The participant should remain seated motionless and emotionless. Neither should he cough or yawn. His head should be lowered in contemplation. There should neither be clapping of hands nor jumping nor should there be any simulative act. Without any extremely important need, there should be no talking. However, any state of ecstasy which develops without one’s volition is understood and cannot be criticised.

After the termination of the state of ecstacy, the participant should immediately become silent and immobile. It is highly improper to continue the display of wajd by pretence solely because people may sarcastically or disparagingly say that his wajd has quickly ended. One should not display wajd by deliberate design. The pretence of wajd is to prevent people from attributing his inability to sustain the wajd to the deficiency in him or because they may say that his heart is devoid of purity and tenderness.

Now ponder the condition of the people of this age. To what extent is this condition adhered to? Firstly, there are extremely few who even understand the meanings of the subject matter. When they lack this understanding, what attention will they pay? Secondly, they stare (with desire) at the singer. In some places is found the evil practise of immoral women being employed for the singing. The question of spiritual enlightenment thus does not arise. Rather, the participants are entrapped in worshipping their shahwat (lust and desire). It is further shocking that some consider these evil gazes to be ibaadat, and–Naْthubillah–a means of Qurb-e-Ilaahi (Divine Proximity). How can Imaan remain safe with such vile beliefs and in such circumstances?

Assuming someone guards his gaze, droops his head and even experiences some kaifiyat (ecstatic feeling), then firstly, in view of these factors of corruption, the kaifiyat will not be roohaani (spiritual). And, even if it is not this calamity, he will (on account of the slight kaifiyat) make a mountain of an anthill. He will scream, moan, fall on people, etc. A storm will be created in the whole gathering. Thus, show, pretence and creating problems are fully discharged at such assemblies.

After dissipation of the slight temporary kaifiyat, he continues to maintain a false outerfacade of aloofness and engrossment in spirituality to create the impression that he is a Saahibul Haal. He thus, occasionally erupts into slogans of

هو حق (Allah – He is The Truth). Thus, this third condition too has been displaced.

4) The fourth condition, Imaam Ghazali says is to refrain from standing up and screaming as long as one has the power of controlling one’s movements and emotions.

Even this condition has been banished by the people of the age. A man fully in his senses and having his emotions under control, simply to create the impression that he is the ka’bah and qiblah of all the people of ecstasy, creates a hue and cry in the assembly by his deceptive antics to project an image of spirituality so that people become his followers.

5) With regard to the fifth condition, Imaam Ghazali says that if a man of genuine ecstasy stands up (in ecstasy), all should conform to his action (and stand up). The reason for this is to show consideration for one’s friend and companion.

Some people hearing this condition may feel very pleased and say: “That is exactly what we are doing.” Firstly, of what use is it to adhere to only one condition? If all conditions are not executed it will be like someone who while making wudhu washes only his face, leaving out all the other acts. Saying that he has already washed his face, he begins to perform Namaaz. Everyone is able to understand the futility and invalidity of such a Namaaz. Secondly, upon reflection it will be understood that in reality even this condition is not being acted on because the basis of this condition is to show consideration for friends. Conforming by standing is an external form of showing such consideration. Consideration by both parties is essential. For example, just as it is necessary for the muqtadis to conform with the Imaam to take into consideration the muqtadis. Thus, he should be considerate of their comfort, time, etc. Similarly, is it with regard to Simaa assemblies. While the gathering should regard the Saahib-e-Haal and conform with him, so too should he observe consideration for the people in the gathering. Some persons even after passing of the ecstasy continue standing (demonstrating simulated acts), imposing extreme distress on the others who are constrained to also remain standing (since they are under the illusion of the endurance of the man’s state of ecstasy).

Thus, this condition too is no longer found in present-day Simaa’ assemblies. So far the conditions necessary for the permissibility of Simaa’ have been outlined. Now the prohibition will be discussed. The prevalence of these prohibitions renders Simaa’ unlawful. It is a fact that Simaa’ sessions of the present age are adorned with these prohibitions.

Imaam Ghazali (rahmatullah alayh) says:

If someone asks: ‘Does Simaa’ under any circumstances become haraam?’, then we shall reply: ‘Yes! There are five factors, the presence of even one of them will render Simaa’ haraam. No. 1 pertains to the composer of the poetry. No. 2 pertains to the instruments of Simaa’. No. 3 pertains to the poetry itself. No. 4 pertains to the audience who has developed the habit of listening (to Simaa’). No. 5 pertains to the general public.’

These elements, viz. the singer, the audience and the instruments, are the fundamentals of Simaa’.

With regard to the first factor of prohibition, Simaa’ will be haraam if the singer is a woman on whom it is haraam to cast a gaze or if the singer is a young boy. If such persons are the singers, the elements of corruption are present.

You must have observed at the mazaaraat (mausolea) of the Saints, prostitutes who have the special expertise of deceiving and captivating hearts, singing shamelessly, destroying the taqwaa of thousands. In some places young lads decorated and adorned in beautiful ornamental attire sing in places of amusement. This is even worse.

The second factor of prohibition pertaining to instruments is the musical instruments which are the salient features of immoral persons. In the present age (at Simaa’ sessions) these instruments are most certainly employed.

The third factors of prohibition is such poetry/songs which describe the beauty and attributes of lovers. Although such verses by themselves are not haraam, nevertheless, it is incumbent to abstain from presenting such poetry to a person for whom it is not lawful, for it will corrupt his mind. It is absolutely essential for a person with such corrupt ideas to abstain from Simaa’.

With regard to the prevalence of this element, in the present age, the reality is not hidden. Present at such assemblies where this type of poetry is sung, are young people of lust who are involved in illicit love affairs. This type of singing further arouses their evil passions.

Regarding the forth factor of prohibition, Imaam Ghazali says that it pertains to a person in whom shahwat (carnal lust) is dominant. Added to this, he possesses the vigour of youth which overshadows his other attributes of virtue. For such a person Simaa’ is absolutely haraam regardless of whether there is the love of an earthly beloved in his heart or not. In all circumstances such a person’s lusts will be aroused when he listens to songs/poetry which depict love scenes. Shaitaan will inspire his heart and fabricate for him a beloved one about whom he will fantasize. The fire of passion will blaze in him and the evil lustful capacities will be given powerful impetus. Thus, the forces of shaitaan will be reinforced while the army of Allah, viz. Aql (Intelligence) will be emaciated. It is, therefore, waajib for such a person to abstain from Simaa’ gatherings.”

It is worthy to note that Imaam Ghazali has declared the mere factor of youth to be a source of detriment even though the young person’s heart has not yet been ensnared by a love-affair. In fact, Imaam Ghazali instructs that such people be expelled from the Simaa’-gathering. Along with youth, if other elements of prohibition are also present, then the dangers are exacerbated.

Now study the Simaa’ assemblies of the present age. Most participants in fact are the young. Forget about expelling them. They are, on the contrary, being brought to these sessions by invitation.

The fifth factor of prohibition is the audience comprising of members of the general public. Neither is divine love dominant in them nor shahwat (carnal lust). When such people develop the habit of attending Simaa’ sessions, they become mardْdush Shahaadat (i.e. their testimony is not admissible in an Islamic court).

In the present age, Simaa’ has become an amusement and a sport for the public. The slightest excuse in their opinion justifies the organisation of a Simaa’ session.

We have explained the conditions and elements of prohibition. Readers, themselves, can now decide. There is no need for us to comment further.”

After the demise of Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Quddْs Gangohi, Shaikh Ruknud Deen after completing the ghusl, placed his hand on the blessed breast of Hadhrat. He felt the movement of Thikr-e-Qalbi (Thikr of the heart).

Hadhrat Gangohi’s Maktْbaat (letters) are famous. His Maktْbaat brim with Ma-aarif (Divine Knowledge and Subtleties). Since the Maktْbaat are in the Farsi language they are not reproduced here. Furthermore, I lack the ability to present in Urdu the spiritual realities (Haqaa-iq) which are in the original (i.e. in the Faarsi) language. Nevertheless, those who are versed in Farsi should study these Maktْbaat in kitaabs such as Anwarul Aafireen. They will derive immense benefit therefrom.

Hadhrat Maulana Rashid Gangohi said:

Whenever I experienced any uncertainty regarding Sulook, I would ascertain the answer by reference to the Maktْbaat.”

Among the works written by him is Anwarul Uyoon which is divided into seven chapters in which the realities, subtleties and mysteries of Sulook have been compiled. The first chapter is predominantly devoted to the excellences of Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Haq. The following too are his works: Ta’leeqaat ala Sharhis Sahaa-if which is in the subject of Ilm-e-Kalaam (Islamic Philosophy) and Haashiyatut Ta’arruf is a voluminous exegesis of Awaariful Ma-aarif.

Much of his life is discussed in Lataa-if-e-Quddْsi which is the works of his son and Khalifah, Shaikh Ruknud Deen. Many anecdotes of his life are also recorded in Mir’atul Asraar, Iqtibaasul Anwar and Anwarul Aarifeen.

Since this brief treatise lacks the scope for a detailed presentation of Hadhrat Gangohi’s life, I shall narrate a few anecdotes..

 A waswasah (stray thought) occurred to a Mureed of Hadhrat Shah Abdul Haq Quddْs Gangohi. He thought that he had already gained whatever knowledge (of Sulook) there was here (i.e. by Hadhrat Gangohi). He thought that there are also other famous Masha-ikh and there was nothing wrong in seeking divine knowledge elsewhere, hence he should visit the other Masha-ikh as well. But he felt it improper to reveal this thought to his Shaikh. Hadhrat Shaikh realised this either by way of kashf or some other signs. Hence, he told the Mureed:

Brother! Allah Ta’ala says: (“Travel in the earth...”). Therefore, if you for some time wander a bit here and there, you will obtain some relaxation as well as be honoured with the ziyaaraat and barakaat of different Masha-ikh and then it will not be wrong to enquire from anyone about Allah’s Name (i.e. Divine Knowledge).”

In his heart the mureed felt pleased at this coincidence. He took leave and began his visiting spree. Every Shaikh whom he visited, instructed him with the same shaghl of Paas Anfaas which he had been given to practise in the very initial stage. He was extremely perplexed, thinking to himself: ‘Everyone to whom I go, begin me off with Alif, Baa, Taa. Whatever else I had hitherto practised has become futile.” Ultimately, feeling very embarrassed, he returned to Hadhrat Shaikh Gangohi and repented. Hadhrat said:

Brother, are you now satisfied? Now sit in solitude and with undivided attention take Allah’s Name.”

 Muhammad Gauth Gawaliyari, the author of Jawaahir-e-Khamsah, was an aamil. He was apparently a contemporary of Shaikh Abdul Quddْs Gangohi. Once he sent some jinns to bring Hadhrat to him. Hadhrat Shaikh on this occasion was engrossed (in thikr) in the Musjid. The jinns arrived, but could not muster up the courage to go to Hadhrat. When the Shaikh noticed someone, he asked: ‘Who is it?” The jinns replied: “Muhammad Gauth wishes to see you, hence he has sent us. If you consent, we shall take you without causing any inconvenience.” Hadhrat said:

I order you to bring Muhammad Gauth here.”

The jinns obeyed. Taking hold of Muhammad Gauth they set off to Hadhrat. Muhammad Gauth said to the jinns:

What is wrong? You were in subjection to me. Why this disobedience?”

The jinns responded:

With regard to others, we are obedient to you, but not in regard to the Shaikh. As far as he is concern-ed, we cannot obey you.”

They delivered him to Hadhrat Shaikh who said:

Have you no shame?”

Hadhrat severely reprimanded him. Finally he became bay’t to Hadhrat and attained a lofty spiritual status of divine proximity (i.e. he became a Saahib-e-Nisbat). His grave is in Gawaaliyar.

 Once a wealthy and prominent personality of the community, who was also Hadhrat’s khaadim had invited the wealthy and the poor of the city to attend the Walimah of his son. Hadhrat Shaikh presented himself in order to test the khaadim. He went incognito. He changed his attire and arrived at night and sat among the poor. Hadhrat Shaikh observed that the khaadim was treating and attending to the rich and poor in the same way. Hadhrat Shaikh remained seated among the poor, but the khaadim did not have the remotest notion of his presence. Afterwards when the khaadim came to Hadhrat (i.e. at the khanqah), Hadhrat displayed his displeasure. When the khaadim enquired the reason of his displeasure, Hadhrat said:

I was at your gathering of feasting, but you did not recognise me.”

The khaadim presented the excuse of his inability to have recognised Hadhrat because of the circumstances which precluded recognition. Hadhrat Shaikh said:

Why did you not perceive my fragrance? If you could have perceived the fragrance, you would certainly have recognised me inspite of the different garb. Since you could not perceive the fragrance, it is clear that you lack love for me.”

(The spiritual rationale of this attitude may not be comprehensible to those who are barren – bereft of spiritual insight and divine love. The spiritual bond with the Shaikh for the sake of developing the Love of Allah, produces Roohaani fragrance in the relationship. Such fragrance becomes spiritually perceptible according to the degree of truth in the mutual love of the spiritual partners in this celestial bond. – Translator).

Hadhrat Aqdas Thanwi narrates several anecdotes of Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Quddْs in his book, Assunnatul Jaliyyatu fi Chishtiyyatil Ulyah. I reproduce two here.

1) Once Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Quddْs came to Delhi. Shaikh Haji Abdul Wahhab Bukhari who was a descendent of Sayyid Jalalud Deen Bukhari, sent the written manuscript of his tafseer to Shaikh Abdul Quddْs. When Hadhrat Shaikh opened the manuscript his eyes fell on the aayat pertaining to the tahaarat (purity) of the household members of Rasulullah (صلى الله عايه وسالم). In its tafseer, Shaikh Abdul Wahhab stated that the successful end (Khaatimah bil Khair – death with Imaan) of all descendants of Rasulullah (صلى الله عايه وسالم) is assured. Their death will most certainly be beautiful. Shaikh Abdul Quddْs wrote in the margin:

This view is in conflict of the view of the Ahlus Sunnah was Jama’at.”

He then returned the manuscript. Meanwhile, the Ulama of that place deliberated many days on this question. Finally, all accepted the ruling stated by Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Quddْs.

2) Once the Imaam of the Musjid did not arrive on time, hence his nephew, Shaikh Abdul Ghani went forward and became the Imaam. He paused slightly between الذين and انعمت . Hadhrat Shaikh repeated the Namaaz and furiously said:

Young men should be prevented from Imaamate and invalidating the Namaaz of the people. Does he not know even that the mousْl and silah (these are terms of Arabic grammar) join to form a single word, hence it is improper to create an interruption between the two. Waqf between them is not permissible.”

He had seven sons who all were men of virtue and excellence. They were educated in Delhi. Whenever they wished to meet their father, he (Hadhrat) would himself go to Delhi to avoid any disruption to their education.

His Demise

Shaikh Ruknud Deen states in Lataa-if-e-Quddْsi that Hadhrat Shaikh passed away on the 11th Jamadil Ukhraa 977 Hijri. On Sunday, Hadhrat became feverish and started to shiver. On Friday his condition improved, enabling him to perform Namaaz comfortably. After Namaaz, the fever resumed. Even during his maradhul maut (the last illness) his ibaadat did not undergo any change. He remained fully engrossed in ibaadat despite his illness. At the very end, he signalled for wudhu and he performed two raka’ts Namaaz. He made Ruku’ and Sajdah by means of signs. On the ninth day, on Monday, while performing Namaaz, he passed away.

Some people record the year of his demise as 945 Hijri. Hadhrat’s age was 84 years. For 35 years he had lived in Radoli. In 896 Hijri, he settled in Shahaabad on the request and insistence of Umar Khan Kashi who was a minister of Sultan Sikander Ludhi. He also lived for 35 years in Shahaabad. In 893 Hijri, during the reign of Zahirud Deen Babar, Hadhrat settled in Gangoh and lived 14 years there.

Presently, Gangoh is divided into two areas. The one area commonly known as Gangoh is the city. The other area is to the west of the city and is known as Seraa-e. This area at the time of Hadhrat’s arrival was a complete forest. It is here where Shaikh Gangohi took up residence. The development of this area commenced about this time. It is here where the three Pillars of the Chishtiyyah lam, Hadhrat Shah Abu Saeed Gangohi and HadhratSilsilah (Hadhrat Qutb-e- Imam-e-Rabbani Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi) are lying in rest.

Although there are different versions regarding the year of his demise, the most reliable view is 944 Hijri.

Hadhrat had many khulafaa. The well-known ones are Shaikh Bhْru, Shaikh Umar, Shaikh Abdul Ghafْr A’zampْri, Shaikh Ruknuddin and Shaikh Abdul Kabeer who is better known as Bala Peer. The latter two are his sons as well as his spiritual offspring. Hadhrat Shaikh Jalalud Deen Thanesri who is also his senior khalifah will now be discussed.